By Ian Milligan
This post is a bit technical. My goal is to explain technical concepts related to digital history so people can save time and not have to rely on experts. The worst thing that could happen to digital history is for knowledge to consolidate among a handful of experts.
From the holdings of Library and Archives Canada, to the Internet Archive, or smaller repositories like digitized presidential diaries, or Roman Empire transcriptions, there are a lot of digitized primary sources out there on the Web. You don’t need to be a “digital historian” to realize that sometimes there is a benefit to having copies of these sources on your own computer. You can add them to your own research database, make them into Word Clouds (I know, they’re not perfect), or find ways to manipulate them with tools such as Voyant-Tools, a spreadsheet software, or many other tools that are available. If you can download sources, you may not have to physically travel to an archive, which to me suggests a more democratic access to sources.
Digital historians have been working on teaching users how to access the databases that run online archival collections and how to harness this information for your own research. In this post, I want to give readers a quick overview of some of the resources out there that you can use to build your own repositories of information. If you ever find yourself clicking at your computer, hitting ‘right click’ and then ‘save page as,’ or downloading PDF after PDF after PDF… this post will help you better utilize your computer’s tools, making the digital research process a bit quicker.
So how can we download sources?
Look for the big red button
First, in some cases, some websites have actually built an export feature into their databases. Say you’re researching the war dead of the First World War and wanted to get a database of every Canadian who died. You could go to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, do an advanced search for those who served with the Canadian Forces, and in the results be presented with a list of 110,365 fatalities.
You can’t read those all through the web portal, but you might be able to do something with the data in Microsoft Excel. Luckily, before you freak out, you might notice this:
Click the big red button, and the data is downloaded.
This is becoming more common (and for the life of God, if you’re designing a database, you should put this in). The Epigraphic Database Heidelberg (Latin and Latin-Greek inscriptions found throughout the Roman Empire has this as well, albeit a bit more hidden away.
But, unfortunately, not all websites make downloading data this easy. Fear not, there are other tools available:
Let’s say we wanted to make a spreadsheet that just had two values: the “adler number” and the “translation.” These are just two terms in this example: your own data might have its own specifics (surnames, for example, or service numbers). You could manually go down that list and type out every adler number, and then copy and paste every translation. But you’d be wasting time that you could instead spend with friends or family.
We can use Outwit Hub to capture this data with a few clicks. We want to find the structure of the website, so we right click in your web browser and click view source, which brings up a window like this:
When we look closer at each entry, we see code like this:
<strong>Adler number: </strong>chi,63 <br/> <strong>Translated headword: </strong>groundwards<br/> <strong class="high">Vetting Status: high</strong><br/> <strong>Translation: </strong><div class="translation">[Meaning] to the ground, into/towards [the] earth. Also [sc. attested is] <span style='font-family:;'>?????? </span>, [also meaning] to the ground.</div>
Basically, the Adler number always appears after
Adler number: </strong>
Likewise, the Translation always appears after
and before the next
We can point Outwit Hub at this website and tell it to grab all the numbers between those start points and end points, and likewise the translations, and put them into a spreadsheet.
A Quick Walkthrough
Install it from here, open it up, paste the URL. In our example it’s:
In the top bar, click “scrapers” on the left column. Click “new” at the bottom, call your scraper “STOA,” and press OK. If it asks you to buy the product, just say no thanks. 🙂
It should look like this:
Now we want to fill out the form with our information from above. If you click on blank fields below, you can enter values. I’ve filled out the form below. Try replicating it:
When you click ‘Execute’ you’ll be brought to a table with your information!
You can then click ‘Catch’ at the bottom if you want to keep going with other websites (and then repeat the process to find more data), or you can click ‘Export’ at right to bring your information to a spreadsheet.
Some play, and you’ll be scraping like a pro!
Sometimes, you want even more information. In that case, you’ll need to start programming. Again, don’t be scared: there are tutorials that are awesome and can help you find information.
There are four lessons at the Programming Historian that I want to highlight, but will leave you to navigate yourself.
Data Mining the Internet Archive Collection, by Caleb McDaniel. Following McDaniel’s lesson, you’ll be downloading metadata for the Anti-Slavery Collection at the Boston Public Library. It’s 7,571 items, too many for you to necessarily read yourself, so the lesson takes you through some automated ways to download them.
Automated Downloading with Wget, by yours truly, Ian Milligan. Wget is a blunt force instrument that can let you download tons of sources in a fell swoop. In the lesson, I show you how you could download everything from ActiveHistory.ca to your local computer.
Applied Archival Downloading with Wget, by Kellen Kurschinski, develops the lessons in the previous lesson further and shows how you could generate record codes for collections in the Canadian and Australian national libraries and begin to download sources very, very quickly.
All of these examples could be extended to your own research interests.
I don’t want to mislead you: the first time you try to do some of this it will be hard. But the second time, it’s easier. The third, even easier… Soon you’ll be collecting historical sources on a massive scale.
Good luck! And if you run into trouble, drop a note in the comments. My goal is to make our research methods transparent, and more importantly, help you save time.
Ian Milligan is an assistant professor of Canadian and digital history at the University of Waterloo. He’s one of the co-authors of the The Historian’s Macroscope, a forthcoming peer-reviewed handbook on digital history methodologies that will hopefully be appearing in 2015 *knock on wood*.