A Theory, in Practice: Back to the Bering Land Bridge

By Alan MacEachern

You have likely seen the video from Canada Day of a Mi’kmaw ceremony in Halifax disrupted by what appears to be a curling foursome and spare. At one point, one of the young white men (the skip?) asks a young, apparently Indigenous woman, what is clearly a leading question: “Has this always been Mi’kmaw land?” She replies, “Yes, it was. It has always been unceded Mi’kmaw territory.” Like a cheetah, he pounces: “What about the land bridge? Was that after the land bridge?” “The land bridge has been disproven,” she replies calmly. He’s got nothing; the conversation moves on.

I squirmed when watching that part of the video, because the Passive Aggressive Boys could easily have been students in my Canadian history survey class, where I teach about the Bering land bridge, the route by which humans are believed to have first peopled the Americas during the last ice age. Or maybe they read an Active History post I wrote last year defending the continued relevance of the bridge theory. Or maybe they’ve read the latest edition of the Canadian history textbook Origins, in which I again give the theory credence. (Who am I kidding: nobody reads the textbook.)

The trouble is that while the Bering land bridge theory remains by far the most widely-accepted theory among archaeologists and paleogeneticists of when and how Indigenous people first came to the Americas, the suggestion that the migration occurred “only” 14,500 or so years ago has been taken as evidence by the alt-right, the alt-lite, and lots of ordinary folk that Indigenous peoples have no special claim to the hemisphere. As Globe and Mail columnist Tabatha Southey memorably puts it, “To those educated primarily by the Department of Comment Thread at Dubious Site U, the mention of a land bridge is assumed to be geographic-Kryptonite to Indigenous people. One just has to say ‘land bridge’ a few times, and all land claims magically vanish like tears in rain, the theory goes. Because “LOL, everyone moved here, you see.’”

I squirmed, then, because that Proud Boy in Halifax was perverting something I teach.

But I also squirmed because the young woman got it wrong, too: the Bering land bridge theory has not been disproven.

I wrote last year’s Active History post hoping to provoke interest and discussion about how historians talk about early Canada.[1] My focus was on how we use, misuse, and selectively apply and ignore scientific findings in trying to comprehend and teach that time. I had hoped that the footnote showing the wide range of Canadian history textbooks dating first occupation in the Americas from anywhere between 10,000 to 100,000 years would help bear this out. (I should say explicitly: Nothing in that post or this one precludes or downplays the importance of including – even centring – Indigenous knowledge when teaching Canadian history. Even while teaching science’s best current understanding of the distant past, we also need to ensure that students learn the importance of Indigenous understandings of Creation for connecting the land to the people and fostering Indigenous perspectives and knowledge.)

But the post died, no discussion ensued. The closest thing to an impact it had was last month, when it was cited in a Vice article about Governor General David Johnston’s controversial reference to First Nations as immigrants. Notably, the author then misleadingly tweeted his own article’s conclusions as “Do you remember the thing about the Bering Strait land bridge we learned in school? Yeah, turns out it’s bunk.”

The only substantive response I ever received to my post was a tweet saying, “Pretty sure V Deloria (“Low Bridge, Everybody Cross!”) + Indig languages & oral histories debunked this ages ago!” While I don’t pretend that a single tweet can fully represent an entire side of this debate, this one is, I believe, sufficiently representative that it deserves parsing.[2] With respect to Indigenous languages, if there is prominent linguistic evidence preempting or disproving Indigenous arrival in the Americas during the last ice age, I’m not aware of it.[3] With respect to oral histories, while there are instances of Western science and traditional Indigenous knowledge corroborating one another,[4] they are such different ways of understanding the world that I don’t see how one can be said to debunk the other.

With respect to Vine Deloria, Jr., the “Low Bridge, Everybody Cross!” chapter from his 1995 Red Earth, White Lies: Native Americans and the Myth of Scientific Fact is indeed widely touted as debunking the Bering land bridge theory. Deloria was an important scholar who made a substantial impact on how we think about North American history. But this late-career book makes countless claims that don’t hold up to scrutiny. It contends, for example, that mastodons still lived in the US when the Pilgrims arrived, dinosaurs lived contemporaneously with humans, and the Old Testament supports Indigenous stories of a great deluge.[5] This is a book which argues that now-extinct megafauna were mega because of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, and that that correlation is visible during our own era of high CO2 levels in the increased size of high school athletes.[6] Don’t believe me; go have a look.

Deloria’s chapter on the Bering land bridge is much the same. By times, he plays the scientific authority. “We do not know the cause of the ice ages,” he tells us. “They can range from the sudden cooling of the sun, a shift in the poles, the solar system suddenly traveling through an area of intense cold in space, or even a cometary dump of water.”[7] He is largely wrong in the first sentence, weirdly wrong all over the second sentence – and the second sentence negates the first. By times, he suggests that a fringe scientific authority has been overlooked or suppressed. In supporting one theory (which only the footnote informs us is from 1940), he says on one page that the scientist “was about as close to a living deity in evolutionary biology as Mother Nature herself,” and on the next page that the scientist’s findings were nevertheless “unread or unheeded by several decades of scientific writers.”[8] Throughout, Deloria’s tone is dismissive. “No one seems to have a good explanation why or how the weather warms,” he writes; he decries “popular apologists for orthodox science” and “’scientific’ explanations.”[9] Readers in this era of alternative facts and fake news might take pause about a book whose subtitle speaks of the Myth of Scientific Fact.

In any case, regardless of how well the Bering land bridge theory aligns with the archaeological and genetic record, and regardless of how broadly it is accepted within the scientific community, it has become something of an embarrassment, both because some non-Indigenous people have warped its meaning and because many other people have questioned not just the validity but also the motivations underlying it – and these reactions are related, of course.

In the middle of the David Johnston affair, I heard rumblings on Twitter from a few Canadian historians that perhaps we should drop the bridge theory altogether. We could begin our histories when the Indigenous presence throughout the continent is undisputed – maybe 10,000 years ago, or just after the last ice has melted – so as to sidestep the whole thorny issue of Indigenous arrival.

I can’t imagine such a thing. Canadian history begins with First Nations, and I don’t see how we show more respect for their story by telling less of it. Instead, I think we need to learn more about the land bridge theory – and the citations in the 2016 Nature article that improved the theory are a good place to start. We need to learn more generally about the archaeology and paleogenetics on which we rely to understand Canada’s earliest histories. We need to recognize that not every archaeological find suggesting an earlier date of human arrival on the continent necessarily upends what has been a very robust theory.

But above all, in teaching the Bering land bridge theory we need to crush the idea that Indigenous arrival hundreds of generations ago bears some sort of equivalency with immigration of the last few hundred years. In his book, Deloria recalls meeting a woman who told him, “Well, dearie, we are all immigrants from somewhere.” He regrets not replying, “Yes, indeed, but it makes one helluva difference whether we came 100,000 years ago or just out of boat steerage a generation back.”[10] Agreed: it absolutely does. That is the argument to make. But that argument is fundamentally the same whether Indigenous people arrived 100,000 years ago or 14,500. Except that the evidence is much, much stronger that they arrived closer to 14,500. In which case arguing for 100,000, and arguing against 14,500 on weak evidence, is not just wrong, it’s self-defeating.

Following the Governor General’s comment that First Nations were the first immigrants, Indigenous broadcaster Jesse Wente tweeted “We. Have. Been. Here. Forever.” and then two days later reformulated this as “effectively forever, especially in comparison to the state of Canada.” This was not a concession, it was an enhancement. As trenchant as his original formulation was, the latter one is far superior not only in that it is true, but in that pretty much everyone in Canada already agrees that it is true.[11]

Alan MacEachern is a Professor of History at Western University.


[1] Seriously, how many other articles about the Bering land bridge do you know that legitimately bring up Silvio from The Sopranos?

[2] I did ask the author to discuss her position further on Active History, but without response.

[3] It has to be noted that it’s unclear what “debunked” – like “disproven,” spoken by the woman in Halifax – even means, or whether it always means the same thing, in reference to the bridge theory. Is the argument that the bridge did not exist, that people did not cross it, or that they were not the first to reach the Americas?

[4] Knowledge of the 1700 earthquake in the Northwest, pieced together using both seismology and Huu-ay-aht oral accounts, would seem a great example. See Ann Finkbeiner, “The Great Quake and the Great Drowning,” Hakai Magazine.

[5] Deloria, Jr., Red Earth, White Lies: Native Americans and the Myth of Scientific Fact (Scribner: New York, 1995), 143, 207, and 241 (page references appear in the order of examples listed).

[6] Deloria, 176. The elevated carbon dioxide level of the past had fallen, by the way, because “a comet or meteor composed almost wholly of ice and water … passed close enough to the Earth to disintegrate, dumping ice in massive amounts on the magnetic poles.” (172)

[7] Deloria, 91-92.

[8] Deloria, 106-7.

[9] Deloria, 94, 101, 105. Deloria revels in the contrarian pose. He writes of having originally been impressed by Werner Muller’s work, “but decided to check it out with anthropologists at the Smithsonian.” His next sentence mentions, but does not explain, their negative assessment of it. His next sentence reads, “Since in matters that deal with anthropology …the Smithsonian is more often wrong than Immanuel Kant was punctual, I take this description as a firm endorsement that Muller is right in most of his arguments.” (77)

[10] Deloria, 84.

[11] And to anyone who would dispute that 14,500 years is “effectively forever,” I would ask that you count down with me from 14,500:

14500, 14499, 14498, 14497, 14496, 14495, 14494, 14493, 14492, 14491, 14490, 14489, 14488, 14487, 14486, 14485, 14484, 14483, 14482, 14481, 14480, 14479, 14478, 14477, 14476, 14475, 14474, 14473, 14472, 14471, 14470, 14469, 14468, 14467, 14466, 14465, 14464, 14463, 14462, 14461, 14460, 14459, 14458, 14457, 14456, 14455, 14454, 14453, 14452, 14451, 14450, 14449, 14448, 14447, 14446, 14445, 14444, 14443, 14442, 14441, 14440, 14439, 14438, 14437, 14436, 14435, 14434, 14433, 14432, 14431, 14430, 14429, 14428, 14427, 14426, 14425, 14424, 14423, 14422, 14421, 14420, 14419, 14418, 14417, 14416, 14415, 14414, 14413, 14412, 14411, 14410, 14409, 14408, 14407, 14406, 14405, 14404, 14403, 14402, 14401, 14400, 14399, 14398, 14397, 14396, 14395, 14394, 14393, 14392, 14391, 14390, 14389, 14388, 14387, 14386, 14385, 14384, 14383, 14382, 14381, 14380, 14379, 14378, 14377, 14376, 14375, 14374, 14373, 14372, 14371, 14370, 14369, 14368, 14367, 14366, 14365, 14364, 14363, 14362, 14361, 14360, 14359, 14358, 14357, 14356, 14355, 14354, 14353, 14352, 14351, 14350, 14349, 14348, 14347, 14346, 14345, 14344, 14343, 14342, 14341, 14340, 14339, 14338, 14337, 14336, 14335, 14334, 14333, 14332, 14331, 14330, 14329, 14328, 14327, 14326, 14325, 14324, 14323, 14322, 14321, 14320, 14319, 14318, 14317, 14316, 14315, 14314, 14313, 14312, 14311, 14310, 14309, 14308, 14307, 14306, 14305, 14304, 14303, 14302, 14301, 14300, 14299, 14298, 14297, 14296, 14295, 14294, 14293, 14292, 14291, 14290, 14289, 14288, 14287, 14286, 14285, 14284, 14283, 14282, 14281, 14280, 14279, 14278, 14277, 14276, 14275, 14274, 14273, 14272, 14271, 14270, 14269, 14268, 14267, 14266, 14265, 14264, 14263, 14262, 14261, 14260, 14259, 14258, 14257, 14256, 14255, 14254, 14253, 14252, 14251, 14250, 14249, 14248, 14247, 14246, 14245, 14244, 14243, 14242, 14241, 14240, 14239, 14238, 14237, 14236, 14235, 14234, 14233, 14232, 14231, 14230, 14229, 14228, 14227, 14226, 14225, 14224, 14223, 14222, 14221, 14220, 14219, 14218, 14217, 14216, 14215, 14214, 14213, 14212, 14211, 14210, 14209, 14208, 14207, 14206, 14205, 14204, 14203, 14202, 14201, 14200, 14199, 14198, 14197, 14196, 14195, 14194, 14193, 14192, 14191, 14190, 14189, 14188, 14187, 14186, 14185, 14184, 14183, 14182, 14181, 14180, 14179, 14178, 14177, 14176, 14175, 14174, 14173, 14172, 14171, 14170, 14169, 14168, 14167, 14166, 14165, 14164, 14163, 14162, 14161, 14160, 14159, 14158, 14157, 14156, 14155, 14154, 14153, 14152, 14151, 14150, 14149, 14148, 14147, 14146, 14145, 14144, 14143, 14142, 14141, 14140, 14139, 14138, 14137, 14136, 14135, 14134, 14133, 14132, 14131, 14130, 14129, 14128, 14127, 14126, 14125, 14124, 14123, 14122, 14121, 14120, 14119, 14118, 14117, 14116, 14115, 14114, 14113, 14112, 14111, 14110, 14109, 14108, 14107, 14106, 14105, 14104, 14103, 14102, 14101, 14100, 14099, 14098, 14097, 14096, 14095, 14094, 14093, 14092, 14091, 14090, 14089, 14088, 14087, 14086, 14085, 14084, 14083, 14082, 14081, 14080, 14079, 14078, 14077, 14076, 14075, 14074, 14073, 14072, 14071, 14070, 14069, 14068, 14067, 14066, 14065, 14064, 14063, 14062, 14061, 14060, 14059, 14058, 14057, 14056, 14055, 14054, 14053, 14052, 14051, 14050, 14049, 14048, 14047, 14046, 14045, 14044, 14043, 14042, 14041, 14040, 14039, 14038, 14037, 14036, 14035, 14034, 14033, 14032, 14031, 14030, 14029, 14028, 14027, 14026, 14025, 14024, 14023, 14022, 14021, 14020, 14019, 14018, 14017, 14016, 14015, 14014, 14013, 14012, 14011, 14010, 14009, 14008, 14007, 14006, 14005, 14004, 14003, 14002, 14001, 14000, 13999, 13998, 13997, 13996, 13995, 13994, 13993, 13992, 13991, 13990, 13989, 13988, 13987, 13986, 13985, 13984, 13983, 13982, 13981, 13980, 13979, 13978, 13977, 13976, 13975, 13974, 13973, 13972, 13971, 13970, 13969, 13968, 13967, 13966, 13965, 13964, 13963, 13962, 13961, 13960, 13959, 13958, 13957, 13956, 13955, 13954, 13953, 13952, 13951, 13950, 13949, 13948, 13947, 13946, 13945, 13944, 13943, 13942, 13941, 13940, 13939, 13938, 13937, 13936, 13935, 13934, 13933, 13932, 13931, 13930, 13929, 13928, 13927, 13926, 13925, 13924, 13923, 13922, 13921, 13920, 13919, 13918, 13917, 13916, 13915, 13914, 13913, 13912, 13911, 13910, 13909, 13908, 13907, 13906, 13905, 13904, 13903, 13902, 13901, 13900, 13899, 13898, 13897, 13896, 13895, 13894, 13893, 13892, 13891, 13890, 13889, 13888, 13887, 13886, 13885, 13884, 13883, 13882, 13881, 13880, 13879, 13878, 13877, 13876, 13875, 13874, 13873, 13872, 13871, 13870, 13869, 13868, 13867, 13866, 13865, 13864, 13863, 13862, 13861, 13860, 13859, 13858, 13857, 13856, 13855, 13854, 13853, 13852, 13851, 13850, 13849, 13848, 13847, 13846, 13845, 13844, 13843, 13842, 13841, 13840, 13839, 13838, 13837, 13836, 13835, 13834, 13833, 13832, 13831, 13830, 13829, 13828, 13827, 13826, 13825, 13824, 13823, 13822, 13821, 13820, 13819, 13818, 13817, 13816, 13815, 13814, 13813, 13812, 13811, 13810, 13809, 13808, 13807, 13806, 13805, 13804, 13803, 13802, 13801, 13800, 13799, 13798, 13797, 13796, 13795, 13794, 13793, 13792, 13791, 13790, 13789, 13788, 13787, 13786, 13785, 13784, 13783, 13782, 13781, 13780, 13779, 13778, 13777, 13776, 13775, 13774, 13773, 13772, 13771, 13770, 13769, 13768, 13767, 13766, 13765, 13764, 13763, 13762, 13761, 13760, 13759, 13758, 13757, 13756, 13755, 13754, 13753, 13752, 13751, 13750, 13749, 13748, 13747, 13746, 13745, 13744, 13743, 13742, 13741, 13740, 13739, 13738, 13737, 13736, 13735, 13734, 13733, 13732, 13731, 13730, 13729, 13728, 13727, 13726, 13725, 13724, 13723, 13722, 13721, 13720, 13719, 13718, 13717, 13716, 13715, 13714, 13713, 13712, 13711, 13710, 13709, 13708, 13707, 13706, 13705, 13704, 13703, 13702, 13701, 13700, 13699, 13698, 13697, 13696, 13695, 13694, 13693, 13692, 13691, 13690, 13689, 13688, 13687, 13686, 13685, 13684, 13683, 13682, 13681, 13680, 13679, 13678, 13677, 13676, 13675, 13674, 13673, 13672, 13671, 13670, 13669, 13668, 13667, 13666, 13665, 13664, 13663, 13662, 13661, 13660, 13659, 13658, 13657, 13656, 13655, 13654, 13653, 13652, 13651, 13650, 13649, 13648, 13647, 13646, 13645, 13644, 13643, 13642, 13641, 13640, 13639, 13638, 13637, 13636, 13635, 13634, 13633, 13632, 13631, 13630, 13629, 13628, 13627, 13626, 13625, 13624, 13623, 13622, 13621, 13620, 13619, 13618, 13617, 13616, 13615, 13614, 13613, 13612, 13611, 13610, 13609, 13608, 13607, 13606, 13605, 13604, 13603, 13602, 13601, 13600, 13599, 13598, 13597, 13596, 13595, 13594, 13593, 13592, 13591, 13590, 13589, 13588, 13587, 13586, 13585, 13584, 13583, 13582, 13581, 13580, 13579, 13578, 13577, 13576, 13575, 13574, 13573, 13572, 13571, 13570, 13569, 13568, 13567, 13566, 13565, 13564, 13563, 13562, 13561, 13560, 13559, 13558, 13557, 13556, 13555, 13554, 13553, 13552, 13551, 13550, 13549, 13548, 13547, 13546, 13545, 13544, 13543, 13542, 13541, 13540, 13539, 13538, 13537, 13536, 13535, 13534, 13533, 13532, 13531, 13530, 13529, 13528, 13527, 13526, 13525, 13524, 13523, 13522, 13521, 13520, 13519, 13518, 13517, 13516, 13515, 13514, 13513, 13512, 13511, 13510, 13509, 13508, 13507, 13506, 13505, 13504, 13503, 13502, 13501, 13500, 13499, 13498, 13497, 13496, 13495, 13494, 13493, 13492, 13491, 13490, 13489, 13488, 13487, 13486, 13485, 13484, 13483, 13482, 13481, 13480, 13479, 13478, 13477, 13476, 13475, 13474, 13473, 13472, 13471, 13470, 13469, 13468, 13467, 13466, 13465, 13464, 13463, 13462, 13461, 13460, 13459, 13458, 13457, 13456, 13455, 13454, 13453, 13452, 13451, 13450, 13449, 13448, 13447, 13446, 13445, 13444, 13443, 13442, 13441, 13440, 13439, 13438, 13437, 13436, 13435, 13434, 13433, 13432, 13431, 13430, 13429, 13428, 13427, 13426, 13425, 13424, 13423, 13422, 13421, 13420, 13419, 13418, 13417, 13416, 13415, 13414, 13413, 13412, 13411, 13410, 13409, 13408, 13407, 13406, 13405, 13404, 13403, 13402, 13401, 13400, 13399, 13398, 13397, 13396, 13395, 13394, 13393, 13392, 13391, 13390, 13389, 13388, 13387, 13386, 13385, 13384, 13383, 13382, 13381, 13380, 13379, 13378, 13377, 13376, 13375, 13374, 13373, 13372, 13371, 13370, 13369, 13368, 13367, 13366, 13365, 13364, 13363, 13362, 13361, 13360, 13359, 13358, 13357, 13356, 13355, 13354, 13353, 13352, 13351, 13350, 13349, 13348, 13347, 13346, 13345, 13344, 13343, 13342, 13341, 13340, 13339, 13338, 13337, 13336, 13335, 13334, 13333, 13332, 13331, 13330, 13329, 13328, 13327, 13326, 13325, 13324, 13323, 13322, 13321, 13320, 13319, 13318, 13317, 13316, 13315, 13314, 13313, 13312, 13311, 13310, 13309, 13308, 13307, 13306, 13305, 13304, 13303, 13302, 13301, 13300, 13299, 13298, 13297, 13296, 13295, 13294, 13293, 13292, 13291, 13290, 13289, 13288, 13287, 13286, 13285, 13284, 13283, 13282, 13281, 13280, 13279, 13278, 13277, 13276, 13275, 13274, 13273, 13272, 13271, 13270, 13269, 13268, 13267, 13266, 13265, 13264, 13263, 13262, 13261, 13260, 13259, 13258, 13257, 13256, 13255, 13254, 13253, 13252, 13251, 13250, 13249, 13248, 13247, 13246, 13245, 13244, 13243, 13242, 13241, 13240, 13239, 13238, 13237, 13236, 13235, 13234, 13233, 13232, 13231, 13230, 13229, 13228, 13227, 13226, 13225, 13224, 13223, 13222, 13221, 13220, 13219, 13218, 13217, 13216, 13215, 13214, 13213, 13212, 13211, 13210, 13209, 13208, 13207, 13206, 13205, 13204, 13203, 13202, 13201, 13200, 13199, 13198, 13197, 13196, 13195, 13194, 13193, 13192, 13191, 13190, 13189, 13188, 13187, 13186, 13185, 13184, 13183, 13182, 13181, 13180, 13179, 13178, 13177, 13176, 13175, 13174, 13173, 13172, 13171, 13170, 13169, 13168, 13167, 13166, 13165, 13164, 13163, 13162, 13161, 13160, 13159, 13158, 13157, 13156, 13155, 13154, 13153, 13152, 13151, 13150, 13149, 13148, 13147, 13146, 13145, 13144, 13143, 13142, 13141, 13140, 13139, 13138, 13137, 13136, 13135, 13134, 13133, 13132, 13131, 13130, 13129, 13128, 13127, 13126, 13125, 13124, 13123, 13122, 13121, 13120, 13119, 13118, 13117, 13116, 13115, 13114, 13113, 13112, 13111, 13110, 13109, 13108, 13107, 13106, 13105, 13104, 13103, 13102, 13101, 13100, 13099, 13098, 13097, 13096, 13095, 13094, 13093, 13092, 13091, 13090, 13089, 13088, 13087, 13086, 13085, 13084, 13083, 13082, 13081, 13080, 13079, 13078, 13077, 13076, 13075, 13074, 13073, 13072, 13071, 13070, 13069, 13068, 13067, 13066, 13065, 13064, 13063, 13062, 13061, 13060, 13059, 13058, 13057, 13056, 13055, 13054, 13053, 13052, 13051, 13050, 13049, 13048, 13047, 13046, 13045, 13044, 13043, 13042, 13041, 13040, 13039, 13038, 13037, 13036, 13035, 13034, 13033, 13032, 13031, 13030, 13029, 13028, 13027, 13026, 13025, 13024, 13023, 13022, 13021, 13020, 13019, 13018, 13017, 13016, 13015, 13014, 13013, 13012, 13011, 13010, 13009, 13008, 13007, 13006, 13005, 13004, 13003, 13002, 13001, 13000, 12999, 12998, 12997, 12996, 12995, 12994, 12993, 12992, 12991, 12990, 12989, 12988, 12987, 12986, 12985, 12984, 12983, 12982, 12981, 12980, 12979, 12978, 12977, 12976, 12975, 12974, 12973, 12972, 12971, 12970, 12969, 12968, 12967, 12966, 12965, 12964, 12963, 12962, 12961, 12960, 12959, 12958, 12957, 12956, 12955, 12954, 12953, 12952, 12951, 12950, 12949, 12948, 12947, 12946, 12945, 12944, 12943, 12942, 12941, 12940, 12939, 12938, 12937, 12936, 12935, 12934, 12933, 12932, 12931, 12930, 12929, 12928, 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13 thoughts on “A Theory, in Practice: Back to the Bering Land Bridge

  1. Benjamin Kochan (@Ben_Quahog)

    Great article, Alan. I agree with your main points: 14k+ years of First Nations on the continent is effectively forever and I haven’t seen any legitimate scholarship “disproving” the Bering Land Bridge Theory. Still, while not disproven, the theory has recently been complicated by the Kelp Highway Hypothesis, a corollary to the Coastal Migration Theory, which helps explain certain archaeological sites that seem to predate an ice-free Bering corridor. Coastal Migration Theory used to be a fringe idea, but is now gaining traction with reputable scholars.

    Here’s a good intro to the Kelp Highway (where you can find a link to more detailed scholarship): http://natural-history.uoregon.edu/research/paleocoastal-research-project/kelp-highway-hypothesis

    Cheers,
    Ben Kochan

  2. danallosso

    Great article, especially footnote 11! On @Ben_Quahog’s suggestion re: the Kelp Highway, it’s interesting to speculate whether the arrival of people at Monte Verde 14.5k years ago might be evidence of even earlier migrations, but even if Beringians “only” migrated along the coast before an ice-free corridor opened between the major continental glaciers, that’s still pretty significant. I’m very sympathetic with VD Jr.’s cultural argument, but I don’t think one needs to accept native American myths any more than one accepts, say, christian myths. I think his critique of WHY white people in power have deployed the arguments they have used to denigrate the LONG native history in the Americas is damaged by strict adherence to a “we’ve always been here” claim backed by myth.

    One last point: I really think describing Beringia as a land bridge is misleading. As I tell my Env Hist students, Beringia was as wide as Alaska and it lasted twice as long as recorded history. It was just “home” to a group of people whose descendants (based on DNA evidence) were largely responsible for peopling the Americas. I even made a short video about this, for my students: https://youtu.be/ljFcqkwiEtI .

  3. Val Jobson

    I think it would be useful to your students to make a comparison: about 14,000 years ago while the ice was shrinking people moved into the empty lands of what are now Canada and Britain. And yes, Britain had a land bridge to the east. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Britain#Context
    People had lived in Britain earlier, but of course the ice drove them all out. People may have lived in Canada earlier, before the ice drove them out. The Younger Dryas event may have driven all the people out of Britain until 11,500 years ago https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Britain#Mesolithic
    Therefore the ancestors of the First Nations in Canada may have been in Canada longer than the Britons’ early ancestors were in Britain. So if you must think of it as a horse race, who won?

    As for the Bering land bridge vs coastal migration, my inexpert opinion is that people will move by any and all routes and modes of travel available, so why not both?

  4. Sean Kheraj

    Alan:

    I’ve encountered similar challenges teaching Canadian history. I think students (and most other people) have difficulty conceptualizing long spans of time. I once had a student ask me if Indigenous people on the Great Plains remembered long-extinct horses from the Pleistocene when the Spanish re-introduced horses to the plains in the sixteenth century. I asked the student if he could remember what he ate for breakfast a week ago.

    The next time someone asks if Indigenous people have lived in North America for a long time, I’ll refer them to footnote 11 of this post.

  5. Jamie Murton

    I’ve wrestled with this very recently for the general environmental history of Canada I’m working on. I initially was going to try the approach Alan discusses here, of ignoring the whole origin issue and simply talking about how people moved into the formerly glaciated lands of what it is now Canada. But it didn’t work; it was simply ignoring part of a set of knowledge because I found it inconvenient or difficult. Thinking about the archaeological records as a particular kind of knowledge with its own goals and preconceptions seemed more useful. So I ended up (for the moment) with a relatively short discussion of the Bering Land Bridge and a longer discussion of archaeology and how it attempts to construct knowledge. Which raises the issue that I’m not an archaeologist and am trying to represent their work…. Then: as the twitter response by @adamgaudry to this post makes clear, however, this doesn’t get us past the fact that all of these stories have their own political purposes. Perhaps we need to (a) decide what sort of story we need or want to tell and then (b) be aware of the potential impacts of that story, and try to engage with thoes as best we can, as Alan does here.

  6. Alan MacEachern

    Thanks for reading & engaging with my essay, & for the links. For the most part, I’m not going to reply to individual comments or tweets, both because for the moment it feels I left it all on the page & because I have no interest in debating this 140 characters at a time – I think too slow & write slower. I’d encourage others to contribute pieces of their own to Active History.

    I respect those who say, “BLB? I refuse to engage with that.” It’s harder to respect those who say “Debunked! Disproved! Deloria!” on poor or no evidence, or not even caring about evidence.

    One thing: A few comments here assume I’m differentiating between land & coastal migration. When I refer to the Bering land bridge theory, it’s to the idea that Beringia’s existence allowed for travel from Asia to the Americas, full stop. As I said in my 1st post, “archaeologists have increasingly come to assume that a coastal migration was involved” – that is, along as well as on land. See the illustration in that 1st post, too. (As Val says here, “people will move by any & all routes & modes of travel available, so why not both?”) I think that’s a valid use of the term, especially when those who would deny the theory don’t tend to debate land vs coast, but rather Beringia vs not, 14,500 vs 60,000 or 100,000 or forever.

  7. qmackie

    The “Kelp Highway” (NB “highway” a very problematic framing) is also a Beringian model, it just acknowledges that Beringia had a coastline to the south.

    I’m in the 14,000 or 20,000 or whatever = effectively “forever” camp but archaeology needs to be very careful around its language and unwanted or unintended implications of the language it uses. Framing the process in a more humanistic manner with less teleological and/or totalizing language helps return real history into the early period of humans in the Americas.

  8. Martha Roberts

    Hi Alan and other commentators,

    I’m just wondering if anyone can comment on the recent article detailing the find of 130,000-year-old human activity at the Cerutti Mastodon site in San Diego County, California in “Nature”.

  9. Pingback: Canadian History Roundup – Week of July 9, 2017 | Unwritten Histories

  10. Alan MacEachern

    The response to my post has been really encouraging. Check out valuable Twitter threads by Adam Gaudry https://twitter.com/adamgaudry/status/885551256244109312 and https://twitter.com/adamgaudry/status/885909426397261824, Daniel Rück https://twitter.com/danrueck/status/885894406817054720, Eve Tuck https://twitter.com/tuckeve/status/885664651727560704, and Lindsay Gibson https://twitter.com/ls_gibson/status/885555980548808704. Christopher Moore takes things in a different, valuable direction in http://christophermoorehistory.blogspot.ca/2017/07/as-long-as-rivers-have-run-and-grass.html.

    Some of the discussion on Twitter turned to whether talking or teaching the Bering land bridge theory, and Indigenous arrival in the Americas generally, was inherently imperialistic, racist, insulting, or simply avoidable. It was at this point that the “likes” for my tweet advertising the post started to *decline*, as some of those liking it had 2nd thoughts about either my argument or being associated with me making it! I believe it reasonable we study how Canadian and Indigenous history accords with human history more broadly. (A correspondent reminded me of this great video: https://www.ted.com/talks/david_christian_big_history.) I believe, as said in the post, that we don’t show more respect for First Nations’ story by telling less of it. And I believe that there are a lot of teachers and professors who, come September, will be telling students *something* to start their courses in Canadian history, and that we’re better off explaining how we’re doing it and asking how we can do it better.

    In answer to Martha’s question, just above: The Cerutti findings were not of human bones nor (clearly) human tools, but rather of mastodon bones in what has been interpreted as a weird location and layout, alongside rocks bearing marks that suggest they could have been used to smash open the bones for marrow. That’s it. If human bones or tools are ever found nearby, that would make a huge difference. But this alone is a weak basis for dating human arrival in the Americas back 100,000 years. (For a good discussion of the Cerutti find, see http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/04/mastodons-americas-peopling-migrations-archaeology-science/).

    Finally, I’ve created a Powerpoint version of footnote 11 that can be shown in the background while teaching: https://www.dropbox.com/s/s23cccenp9mwtkt/onefourfivezerozero.pptx?dl=0. With 14,501 slides, it’s a big file & slow to load, but works fine. I set the slide transitions so it’s about 36 minutes long; Confederation shows up 23 seconds in.

  11. andrewdsmith

    Interesting piece. It reminded me of an experience I had about a decade ago when I was teaching a Cdn survey course in a small university in rural Ontario. A student objected to my brief presentation of the Bering Strait theory on religious grounds, a sentiment shared by several other students who subscribed to the Biblical account of humanity’s origins. I was stunned that anyone on Canada would believe the book of Genesis is literally true– my upbringing in Toronto had led me to assume that creationism was a phenomenon confined to the US. I did a bit of research online and saw that the Bering Strait thesis had been attacked by a rhetorical alliance between between some Canadian evangelicals and some FN people.

    Anyway, it seems to be that if you open the door to entertaining non-scientific accounts to humanity’s origins and diffusion out of Africa, you are legitimizing global warming deniers, vaccine opponents, and others. Any academic discipline that tolerated such an anti-science attitude within its boundaries would likely see its funding cut.

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